pale blue box is used for in-text examples
a pink box is used for examples from the reference list.
Formatting Your Paper
• Set margins at least 1”
Use 12 point font size (Courier or Times New Roman).
All text should be double spaced.
Page numbers should be in the upper right hand corner of the page,
beginning with the title page.
Each page should be identified with a header containing the
first two or three words of the title of the paper. The header should
be placed in the upper right-hand corner, above or five spaces to the
left of the page number.
Indent the first line of every paragraph 5-7 spaces.
to the APA Publication Manual for a complete list of exceptions to
the following rules.
figures to express numbers 10 and above.
the final 25%
10 miles long
figures to express numbers that represent time, date, age, population
or sample size.
2 week period
figures to express numbers that represent mathematical or statistical
about 7% of
divided by 5
a ratio of 4:1
words to express numbers below 10.
words to express any number that begins a sentence.
percent of the respondents were retired.
from each community were asked to complete a survey.
quoting provide the author, year and page number. Enclose all quotations,
except those of 40 or more words, in double quotation marks.
to Mulvey (2010), “Any discussion about the prospects of retirement
security for the baby boomers must take
into account the potentially devastating costs of future long term
care services” (p. 54).
Mulvey (2010) points out “the potentially devastating costs
of future long term care services” (p. 54) must be taken into
devastating costs of future long term care services” (Mulvey,
2010, p. 54) affect the retirement outlook
for baby boomers.
of 40 or more words are indented five spaces and blocked.
discussion about the prospects of retirement
security for the
baby boomers must take into account
devastating costs of future long term care services.
The reality is individual
savings is not going to
be sufficient to
pay for long term care services for middle income
Americans, and the
government will face ever increasing
as the baby boomers age
and become eligible
for Social Security and Medicare. (p. 54)
an ellipsis (three dots) to indicate omitted words in a sentence. Use
a period and an ellipsis (four dots) to indicate an omission between two
notes, “Any discussion . . . must take into account the
potentially devastating costs of future long term care
services” (p. 54).
notes, “Individual savings is not going to be sufficient to
pay for long term care services. . . . and employers
should consider carefully how they could help to motivate workers
to purchase long term care insurance at younger ages
when it is more affordable" (p.54).
paraphrasing you must credit the source, as you would when quoting.
(2006) explains how increasing knowledge of the genetic basis of disease
is changing the landscape of health
Increasing knowledge of the genetic basis of disease is changing the
landscape of health care (Phillips, 2006).
Groups as Authors
such as government agencies, corporations and associations, are spelled
out in the reference list and the first time they appear cited in the
text (followed by the abbreviation). Subsequent text citations are abbreviated
|Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention. (2010). MMWR weekly: Summary of notifiable
diseases. Retrieved from
Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2010)
Citings in Text:
with No Authors Listed
a work, such as an article or web page, has no author (not even a corporate
body), use the first few words of the title in quotation marks to substitute
for the name of the author. If the work is a book, brochure or report,
use italics instead of quotation marks. Before you assume that a web page has no author, use these tips to identify one:
•Remember that an author can be an organization. It does not have to be an individual.
•Look for any credits, copyright or contact information. Click on links like “About Us” or “Contact Us”.
•If you are citing a report or other document, look at the title page, introductory pages and final pages.
•Google the title of a report or document to see if it is mentioned elsewhere. For example, an announcement or commentary on a report may also mention the author or provide a clue to its origin.
•Look at the root of the url (the first part of the url that ends in .org .edu .com, etc.) and go to that web page.
•Use a service like whois.net to locate the owner of a website.
If you are certain there is no identifiable author:
article or web site entitled Building Healthy Futures for All Children
would appear cited in the text as
Healthy Futures,” 2011)
book or report with the same title would appear as
Healthy Futures, 2011)
a work’s author is presented as Anonymous, cite the work as though
Anonymous were the author’s name.
Works with no Date Listed
n.d. for no date.
of Health and Human Services, n.d.)
Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d.). Healthy people
2010: What is healthy people? Retrieved
with Multiple Authors
cite both names. Use an ampersand instead of “and”.
R., & Aguado, M. T. (2004). Efficacy and other milestones for
human papillomavirus vaccine introduction.
Vaccine, 23(5), 569-578.
Three to Five Authors
authors should be named the first time the reference is used. Afterwards,
use only the surname of the first author followed by et al.
& Kirsch, 2006)
Citings in Text:
|Millin, M. G.,
Jenkins, J. L., & Kirsch, T. (2006). A comparative analysis of
two external health care disaster responses
following hurricane Katrina. Prehospital
Emergency Care, 10(4), 451-456.
or More Authors
only the first author followed by et al. In the reference list,
write the names of the first six authors, an ellipsis, and then the final author.
Chandrasekhar, M., Rekhadevi, P. V., Mahboob, M., Rahman, M. F., &
Vuyyuri, S. B., . . . Grover, P. (2006).
Genotoxic evaluation of workers employed
in pesticide production. Mutation Research - Genetic Toxicology
Environmental Mutagenesis, 609(1),
Authors with the Same Surname
the authors’ initials in all citations.
(W. Smith, 1976)
(D. T. Smith, 2003)
More than One Work at Once
should appear within the same parenthesis
in the same order as they would in the reference list.
Examples of References
from a Print Journal
|Goodman, R. M.,
Yoo, S., & Jack, L. J. (2006). Applying comprehensive community-based
approaches in diabetes prevention: Rationale, principles, and
models. Journal of Public Health
Management and Practice, 12(6), 545-555.
an article is an exact copy of the original print version you may reference
it as print, but if the electronic format differs from the print version add the doi (preferred, if available) or URL.
|Levene L.S., Baker R., Bankart M.J., Khunti K. (2010). Association of features of primary health care with coronary heart disease
mortality. Journal of the American Medical Association, 304(18), 2028-2034. doi:10.1001/jama.2010.1636
Keeley, E. C.,
& Grines, C. L. (2004). Primary coronary intervention for acute
myocardial infarction. Journal of the
American Medical Association, 291(6), 736-739. Retrieved from
a URL that links directly to what you are citing. However, when an internet
document has numerous related sections with different URLs, supply the URL to
the entry (home) page. Use your judgment to best lead the reader to the material you are citing.
of Health and Human Services. (2006). Pandemic planning assumptions.
Government Report on the Internet
• When a government agency has several bureaucratic levels, cite both the umbrella department and the relevant agency evident as the immediate author of the report. If a number is assigned to the report, give the number in parentheses immediately after the report's title.
White House Council on Environmental Quality, Climate Change Adaptation Task Force. (2010). Progress report of the
interagency Climate Change Adaptation Task Force: Recommended actions in support of a national climate change
adaptation strategy. Retrieved from http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ceq/Interagency-Climate-Change-Adaptation-Progress-Report.pdf
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies. (2010).
Treatment episode data set: The TEDS report: Substance abuse treatment admissions involving abuse of pain relievers: 1998 and 2008.
Retrieved from http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k11/196/YoungMothersHTML.pdf
Non Government Report in the Internet
American Lung Association.(2011). Toxic air: The case for cleaning up coal-fired power Plants. Retrieved from http://www.lungusa.org/assets/documents/healthy-air/toxic-air-report.pdf
• Reference a presentation that is available online as:
New York Medical College, School of Health Sciences and Practice. (2011). Public health careers: The opportunity is yours [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from
• For presentation slides that are not online, provide more detailed information about the place of origin:
Taylor, E.S. (2011). Types of statistical tests [PowerPoint slides]. Department of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Health Sciences
and Practice, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY.
Wainwright, S. (2011, March 8). Cost: How specialists control the reimbursement system [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://health.newamerica.net/blogmain
|Omoto, A. M.,
& Kurtzman, H. S. (2006). Sexual orientation and mental health:
Examining identity and development in
lesbian, gay and bisexual people.
Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
S.L., & Knickman, J.R. (Eds.). (1999). To improve health and
health care 2000: The Robert Wood Johnson
foundation anthology. San Francisco:
|Leaning, J. (1993).
War and the environment: Human health consequences of the environmental
damage of war. In E.
Chivian, M. McCally, H. Hu, & A.
Haines (Eds.), Critical condition: Human health and the environment
Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Further Resources to Help You Master APA Style
Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological
Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological
Association. WZ345 P976 2010
Association. (2010). Concise Rules of APA Style (6th ed.). Washington,
DC: American Psychological Association. WZ345 C744 2010
Association. (2011). Frequently asked questions about APA style. Retrieved from http://www.apastyle.org/learn/faqs/index.aspx
you need help, contact the Reference
Librarians at the Health Sciences Library at (914) 594-4210 or request a consultation.